Here is the video version, if you prefer it:

Let’s talk about how to change the permissions of a file. To do so, let’s first talk about octal and binary numbers. Before you get all whiny and say “*Oh jeez, why binary? Why do I need to know binary?*”. Well, you don’t really, but I think it **greatly simplifies things**, so that’s why.

Let’s look at user permissions (same applies for group and world permissions). If you have:

`rw-`

that could be represented in binary as:

`110`

since binary has only two digits – `0`

and `1`

– so this could be a valid choice. We have a `1`

where we have the right to modify the file in a certain way “enabled” and `0`

where we have the right to modify the file in a certain way disabled.

Now, how do we read `110`

in binary? Let’s first see how do we read it in decimal.

What you actually do is this: `110 is 0 * 10^0 + 1 * 10^1 + 1 * 10^2`

(looking the digits from right to left, where `^`

is the exponentiation operator). That is, the rightmost digit is the least significant one and it gets multiplied by `10^0`

. The digit to the left of it is multiplied by `10^1`

and so on. The same is in binary, but instead of using base `10`

, we use base `2`

. So `110`

will be:

`0 * 2^0 + 1 * 2^1 + 1 * 2^2 = 6`

Now, let’s pay attention to the highest possible number with 3 digits in binary, which is `111`

. By following the same logic `111`

in binary is `7`

in octal (`1 * 2^0 + 1 * 2^1 + 2 * 2^2 = 7`

). Note that octal has 8 digits – `0`

through `7`

.

So now, the problem reduces to: Figure out what octal digit represents the file permissions we want. Let me give you a list:

`0`

in octal –`000`

in binary`1`

in octal –`001`

in binary`2`

in octal –`010`

in binary`3`

in octal –`011`

in binary`4`

in octal –`100`

in binary`5`

in octal –`101`

in binary`6`

in octal –`110`

in binary`7`

in octal –`111`

in binary

When you look at binary representations of the octal numbers, you can see the correspondence. For example, `5`

in octal is `101`

in binary, which would look like `r-x`

, meaning we are able to read and execute the file in question.

Now we can come to `chmod`

. `chmod`

is used to change file permissions. It is used as follows:

`chmod <filePermissions> <file>`

where `<filePermissions>`

are 3 octal numbers in a row, each representing permissions for the user, the group and the world, respectively. Only the file owner or the superuser can change file permissions. (Shotts, 2019)

Example `chmod`

command:

`mislav@mislavovo-racunalo:~/Linux_folder$ chmod 600 aba.txt`

You can also use symbolic notation to change permissions (you can check out the man pages for `chmod`

or you can Google how to use symbolic notation with `chmod`

), but I believe that octal is easier to use once you understand it. I do use `chmod +x file`

to add executable permissions to a file and that is a fast way to do so, but whenever I need anything more that that, I use binary file permissions.

Hope you learned something useful!

**References**

Shotts, W. (2019). *The Linux Command Line, Fifth Internet Edition*. Retrieved from http://linuxcommand.org/tlcl.php. Pages 118-122